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marjan:

--- Quote from: jazavac on November 18, 2009, 11:31:01 PM ---nadkokpitno natkrivalo
protukapljična kabanica
 

--- End quote ---

nadkokpitni zaštitar
pretkokpitni protukapljičnjak

grancipor:
krmena nadstrešnica  anim35
pljuskoštitnik  guog98

gravosa:
ako nekom treba  engleski - engleski


 



 
 
A

Abaft: Position on a vessel near the stern.

Abeam: Another ship or object on either side of and in line with a vessel.

Abaft the beam: Term referring to another vessel or shore location to the rear of a line drawn across the beam of a ship.

A-Bracket: Bracket resembling the letter “A” laying on its side. Certain multiple screw merchant ships and many warships have propeller shafts extending outside the hull, forward of the sternpost. Such shafts are supported by a bearing in an A-bracket attached to the hull.

Aft Peak: A watertight compartment between rear watertight bulkhead and the stern.

Aft Perpendicular: A line drawn perpendicular to the waterline where the after edge of the rudder post meets the Summer Load line.

Azimuth Thruster: A thruster that can rotate through 360 degrees, fixed or retractable.
 
 
B

Balanced Rudder: A rudder type in which a proportion of the rudder area, 25-30 % is forward of the axis of rotation. This is to reduce the required torque at the rudder stock.

Beam ends: When a vessel has heeled over to such an extent that there is no righting moment left to bring it back to the normal upright position. Also known as world ends or kiss your "xxx" goodbye.

Beam: The maximum breadth of the vessel.

Belfast Bow: Name given to raked stem introduced by Harland and Wolff of Belfast, giving a large foc’s’le deck.

Bilge: Curved portion, often circular, between bottom and side shell plating and the lower parts of holds, tanks and machinery spaces.

Bilge Keel: External fin at round of bilge to reduce rolling. May extend outwards from the vessel by up to 1 Metre in width. Extends fore and aft approximately 2/3 the length of the vessel.

Bilge radius: Radius of the shell plating that joins the side shell to the bottom shell of the hull, measured at the midships section.

Bilge strake: Continuous horizontal fore and aft strip of plating from stem to stern in way of the bilge.

Binnacle: Stand of wood or metal in which a compass is suspended. The cover protects the compass from weather and reduces glare from external lighting.

Bitt: Strong part of ships structure, generally based on the keel and attached firmly to a main deck to which a hawser or warp can be hitched when exceptionally heavy loads are applied such as when the vessel is being towed.

Bitter end: End of the anchor cable secured in the chain locker by a clench pin.

Block Coefficient: Ratio of the displacement of a ship to a given waterline and the volume of the circumscribing block having the same length, breadth and draught of the ship.

Bollard: Large and firmly secured post of circular section for securing hawsers and mooring ropes. Often fitted in pairs on the same base plate.

Boot Topping: Area of a ships side immediately above and below the deep load line. Particularly susceptible to marine weed growth and often coated with specially formulated anti-fouling paint.

Boss: Centre portion of propeller.

Bow: The forward end of the ship.

Bower anchors: The two largest anchors in a ship carried permanently attached to their cables, one on either side of the bow.

Bow thruster: Manoeuvring propeller installed at or near the bow, within a transverse tunnel, for docking assistance, or maintaining vessel heading.

Breadth moulded: Measured at midships and is maximum breadth over the frames.

Break: Point where a side shell plating section drops to the deck below such as in a poop or foc’s’le.

Breast hook: Triangular plate bracket joining port and stbd side stringers at the stem, holding both sides of the ship together.

Breast plate: Horizontal plate that connects shell plating at the stem.

Bridge: Superstructure erection above the freeboard deck generally extending to the ships side giving a clear view from which the ship can be manoeuvred.

Bridge wings: Open portion of the bridge extending from the wheelhouse to the side of the vessel.

Bulbous bow: Protruding bow below the waterline intended to reduce the vessels resistance to motion by breaking the creation of the wake.

Bulkhead: Vertical partition subdividing a ships interior into compartments.

Bulwarks: Vertical plating erected at the gunwhales of a ship to prevent persons being washed overboard and to reduce the water breaking over the deck in a seaway.

Bunker: Compartment where fuel oil or coal for ships engines or boilers is stored.

Buttock: Breadth of a ship where the hull rounds down to the stern.

Butt strap: Connecting metal strap covering a butt joint between two plates to give strength to the joint.
 
 

C

Cable Stopper: Device used to secure the anchor cable and take the load off the windlass when the vessel is riding at anchor.

Camber: Curvature of the deck in a transverse direction. Camber is measured between the deck height at the centre and the deck height at the side. Also called Round of beam.

Cant Frames: Frame not square to the centre line such as in a cruiser stern. Not required with a Transom Stern.

Capstan: Barrel device or rolling concave drum, on a vertical axis, used for heaving in mooring lines or anchor cables.

Carvel Built: Type of ships plating made flush by Vee Butt welding or Butt Strap riveting.

Caulking: 1) Making jopints watertight by filling seams of deck planks with Oakum. 2) Method of closing butts and seams of riveted steel plating.

Ceiling: Timber placed across the floor of a cargo hold to protect it from damage.

Cellular: Structural arrangement where a compartment is divided into small spaces such as a double bottom.

Centre Girder: Continuous longitudinal girder in the double bottom that runs fore and aft on the centre line.

Centre of Buoyancy: The centroid of the underwater volume and point through which the total buoyancy force it assumed to act. For a ship to float on an even keel the centre of buoyancy must be under the centre of gravity. The position of the centre of buoyancy is dictated by the loading of the vessel.

Centre of Gravity: The point through which the total mass of the vessel is assumed to act. The position of the centre of gravity of a ship depends on the distribution of internal masses. The stability of the vessel is directly related to the difference vertically between the centre of buoyancy and the centre of gravity. The greater this distance the greater the stability.

Chain Locker: A compartment that holds the anchor chain and also contains the ‘Bitter End’ connection.

Chock: 1) Smooth surfaced fitting at the weather deck side through which mooring ropes are led. 2) Wedge for securing a hatch cover or adjusting the alignment of a piece of machinery such as an engine, pump or gearbox.

Clinker Built: Each strake or plank of the hull construction overlaps the strake below. Generally used only in small boat building.

Clipper Bow: A bow where the stem post is concave in form as it rises from the waterline forming a bowed shape, like the Kreigsmarine “Atlantic Bow”.

Coaming: vertical plating bounding a hatchway. Heights of coamings depend on hatch position, some being more exposed than others. Coaming may be omitted altogether if directly secured steel covers are fitted. The height of the coaming is dictated by the Merchant Shipping (Load Line) Rules of 1968.

Cofferdam: A void or empty space between two bulkheads or floors preventing contamination of the two spaces contents.

Collision Bulkhead: Foremost transverse watertight bulkhead extending to the freeboard deck. Designed to limit entry of water in the event of a bow collision.

Companionway: 1) Set of steps leading between decks.
2) Ladder used for embarking and disembarking the vessel.

Compartment: Subdivision of the hull by transverse watertight bulkheads, creating compartments that allow the vessel to remain afloat and upright after flooding.

Conning Position: Part of the bridge with a commanding view from which the vessel may be conned (steered) when underway.

Controllable Pitch Propeller: Propeller made up of a boss with separate blades mounted onto it. An internal mechanism enables the blades to move simultaneously through an arc to change the pitch angle and therefore the pitch. Astern thrust can be generated without the need to reverse the rotation of the shaft. CPP units are generally not as efficient as fixed pitch propellers so tend to be used where manoeuvrability is more of a consideration than efficiency such as in ferries.

Crows Nest: Look out position on the upper foremast. Rarely used nowadays.

Crutches: Posts or saddles on the deck forming a crutch that the ends of derricks can rest and be secured when not in use.

Cycloidal Propeller: Combined steering and propulsion device comprising of a number of vertical blades arranged to rotate and revolve to give thrust in any desired direction. The most common form of these is the Voith Schneider unit.
 
 
D
Damping: A ship (boat) has six degrees of freedom, Heaving, Swaying, Surging, Rolling, Pitching and Yawing. The first three are linear motions. Rolling is rotation about a longitudinal axis, pitching is rotation about a transverse axis and yawing is rotation about a vertical axis. It is often necessary to dampen these actions and many devices from stabilizer fins to passive water tanks have been used to this effect.

Davits: Supports under which lifeboats and liferafts are stored and launched.

Deadlight: Steel cover used to protect a porthole in heavy weather. Usually secured with screws and wingnuts.

Deck: Horizontal steel or wooden flooring usually extending from one side of the vessel to the other.

Deck Head: Underside of the deck.

Deck House: Superstructure found on upper decks of a vessel which do not extend the full width of the vessel.

Deck, Main: Principal or strength deck that for structural reasons is an essential part of the ships structure. Usually the deck to which vertical watertight bulkheads terminate.

Deck, Shelter: Deck above the main deck. If this deck is not permanently closed against the weather it is exempt from tonnage dues.

Deck, Tween: In a cargo ship any deck between the bottom of the ship and the main deck.

Deep Tanks: Tanks extending from the shell or double bottom up to or beyond the lowest deck. May serve the dual purpose of carrying liquid in bulk or ballast.

Depth Moulded: Vertical distance at Midships from the Keel to the uppermost deck, taken inside the ships plating.

Devils Claw: Claw attached to the fore part of a Windlass which can be fitted over a link in the anchor cable thus enabling the weight of the anchor to be taken off the windlass when the vessel is under way.

Displacement: Weight of water in tones, displaced by a ship. Loaded displacement includes cargo, stores passengers, and crew. Light displacement is the tonnage displaced without these items. The weight of a Warship is always quoted as displacement tonnage.

Docking Bracket: Vertical stiffener fitted between each transverse bulkhead to support the centerline girder of an oil tanker.

Docking Plug: Threaded bolt usually with a socket hex head, fitted to all double bottom tanks and spaces to allow drainage prior to examination in a dry dock.

Dodger: Screen used as a protection from sea spray.

Double Bottom: Space between the outer hull plating and the inner bottom plating of the ship.

Double Skin: A method of construction that utilises an outer and an inner hull. This method of construction is now compulsory for oil and product carriers.

Doubling Plates: Extra plates, bars or stiffeners added to strengthen sections where holes have been cut.

Down to her Marks: When a vessel is fully loaded to her maximum draught for her relevant load line.

Drain Hat: Bilge water collecting pointing a continuous tank top designed to exclude large waste material.

Draught: Distance from the bottom of the ship to the loaded water line. If the waterline is parallel to the keel the vessel is said to be on an even keel or on the keel. If not the vessel is said to be trimmed by either the head or the stern.

Duct Keel: Space formed by twin longitudinal girders in a ships double bottom. Provides longitudinal strength and is usually used to carry longitudinal pipe mains such as ballast and fuel. Big ships can have a small cart on rails that you sit on and pull yourself along to gain access to valves and fittings for inspection and repair. It is one of the scariest places I have ever been.
 
 
E
Effective Length: Ships length that is used for speed-power calculations and the coefficients relating thereto.

Effective Power: Power required to tow a ship and is a product of the total resistance and speed of the hull.

Elastohydrodynamic: A regime of lubrication where concentrated sliding or rolling contacts are separated by a full film of oil. The thickness of the film depends on the viscosity of the oil and the elastic properties of the solids. Not really a ship nomenclature term but I just like the word and thought I would throw it in!

Even Keel: A condition where the fore and aft draughts are equal and the keel is parallel to the waterline.

Extreme Breadth: The maximum breadth over the extreme points Port and Starboard of a ship.

Extreme Depth: Depth of the ship from the upper deck to the underside of the keel.

Extreme Draught: Distance from the waterline to the underside of the keel.

gravosa:
F
Factor of Subdivision: Value used in the calculation of the permissible floodable length of a compartment with respect to the damage stability of a ship. The value is determined by a formula, which depends on the length of the ship and is measured by a criterion of service numeral. (A numeral based on the relation between the volume of space allotted to passengers and machinery and the total volume).

Fair: Term applied to the readjustment of ships plating that has become slightly buckled in a collision.

Fairlead: Fitting allowing ropes and mooring lines to go in the required direction unobstructed. Usually fitted in a gunwhale or ships rail at the foc’s’le or stern to facilitate a smooth entry of the mooring lines.

Falls: Rope and blocks attached to the davits for raising and lowering lifeboats.

Fashion Plate: Side plate at the end of the superstructure deck, generally with a curved end.

Fathom: Measurement of the depth of water and equal to 6 feet.

Feathering: 1) Positioning of the blades of a Controllable Pitch Propeller such that no thrust is generated, exactly the same as an aircraft propeller. 2) The release of small quantities of steam by a boiler safety valve as it approaches lift pressure.

Feed Tank: Storage tank for boiler feed water, usually a double bottom tank.

Feeder Ship: A smaller vessel that transfers cargoes from deep sea ports to smaller inland ports.

Fender: A resilient device, usually movable, interposed between a ships hull and the harbour walls or other vessels to minimize impact and prevent direct contact so reducing the risk of damage.

FEU: Forty Foot Equivalent Unit. Measurement of container capacity of container ships. Equal to two TEU’s, Twenty Foot Equivalent Units.

Fiddley: Generally regarded as the space inside the funnel where all the uptakes come together.

Fillet: Rounded corner cut in plate or machined in a casting or as originally cast to alleviate stress concentrations found at a sharp corner.

Fineness: The ratio of the area of a waterplane to the area of the circumscribing rectangle. It varies from about 0.7 for a fine form vessel like a yacht to about 0.9 for a full form vessel such as a tanker.

Flagstaff: A flagpole at the stern of a ship, which should be used to carry the ensign of the country of registration. For UK registered vessels that would be a Red Ensign for Merchant Navy, White Ensign for the Royal Navy and a Blue Ensign for RFA or a Merchant Navy Vessel with a Captain who is a member of the Royal Navy Reserves. Also known as Recd White and Blue Dusters.

Flanking Rudders: Additional rudders fitted in front of the propellers.

Flap Rudder: A rudder with a separate tail flap that moves in an angle greater than the main rudder. This gives much increased lift and can generate thrust at 90 deg to the vessel.

Flare: 1)Outward curvature of the side plating at the forward end above the waterline.
2) Firework for attracting attention or rescue services.

Flat: Minor internal, usually lower, deck. Usually without sheer or camber hence its title.

Flat Margin: A double bottom construction where the tank top extends horizontally to the ships side.

Flat of Keel: Width of the horizontal portion of the bottom shell, measured transversely. Also called the Flat of Bottom.

Flat Plate Keel: Middle or center line strake of plating in the bottom shell. It is increased in thickness for strength and as a corrosion allowance.

 
G
Galley: The kitchen!

Gallows: A U shaped beam on the deck of a trawler through which the trawl warp is fed.

Gangway: A ramp or steps used for embarking or disembarking the vessel.

Garboard Strake: The strake on either side of the keel plate.

General Arrangement Plan: A plan of the vessel showing the layout of machinery and all space arrangements.

Gill Jet Thruster: A thruster unit using a vertical axis propeller in a transverse tunnel. Water is drawn from both sides and is discharged through the bottom of the hull. Rotating gill fins then direct the water flow into one of a number of indexed positions around the discharge thus creating a thruster unit capable of directing the thrust through 360 Degrees.

Gimbals: Two rings, pivoted at right angles to each other that allow a compass mounted in the centre complete freedom of movement to maintain in the horizontal plane.

Gin Block: A single pulley block in a, usually fabricated and simple, frame.

Gipsy: A slotted wheel or cable holder mounted on the horizontal shaft of the windlass for heaving up the anchor cable.

Girding: A term referring to a tug that has been capsized by the vessel under tow, usually as a result of allowing the tow to become at right angles to the tug.

GM: The metacentric height of a vessel and has a direct bearing on the stability of the vessel. It is actually the vertical distance between the metacentre (M) and the centre of gravity (G). To be stable G must always be below M.

Goal Post Mast: Seen on cargo ships a mast arrangement with two vertical masts and a cross member arranged in a transverse line. Used to support more than one derrick.

Gog Rope: A short rope used in towing to position the main tow rope on the tug in an attempt to prevent the tow becoming at 90 degrees to the tug and hence Girding.

Graving Dock: The traditional type of Dry Dock, which is dug out of the ground and has watertight gates at one end. The vessel enters, the gates are closed and the dock is pumped out until the vessel rests on the blocks.

Grim Wheel: A contra rotating free wheeling vanes blade fitted behind a propeller blade, which is supposed to reclaim some of the energy lost in the propellers slipstream. It is slightly bigger than the main propeller and rotates slower. These were actually fitted to the QE2 in the 80’s but fell off during a transatlantic crossing!

Gripes: Wire ropes used to secure a lifeboat in the davits and prevent it from swinging out.

Gross Registered Tonnage: The capacity in cubic feet of the spaces within the hull and enclosed spaces above the main deck available for cargo, passengers, stores fuel, crew etc., divided by 100. Hence 100 cubic feet equals 1 Gross Ton.

Gunwhale: Sometimes pronounced as gunnal, It is the upper edge of the hull above next to the bulwark.

Gusset Plate: A fillet bracket plate fitted in a horizontal plane between two adjacent vertical plates.
 
 
H
Half Breadth: Half the breadth of a ship. At any transverse section half breadth distances could be used as the vessel is symmetrical about the keel.

Hard Patch: A plate welded or riveted over a hole to repair the original.

Hatch Beam: Removable beam fitted over a hatch opening, usually supporting a wooden or steel hatch cover.

Hatch Coaming: Vertical plating surrounding a hatch opening to prevent the ingress of water into the hatch after waves have broached the deck. The hatch covers will rest on, and be secured to, the top edge of the coaming.

Hatch Cover: The watertight covering for a hatch opening, secured to the top of the coaming. Covers could be either loose boards, as in old coasters, folded and chained on rollers, as in more modern general cargo, or solid one piece, as in container ships.

Hatches: The opening in the decks of a cargo vessel through which cargo is loaded and discharged.

Hawse Pipe: A pipe fitted between the Foc’s’le and the bow plating through which the anchor cable passes.

Hawser: A wire or hemp rope used for mooring, towing etc.

Headfast: A mooring line taken from the bow and led forward. Also known as a headline or headrope.

Heave To: A manoeuvre to bring the vessel to rest but facing into the weather. Sometimes done in extreme weather to minimize damage to a ship. Usually occurs slightly before heaving up!

Heaving: Vertical linerar movement of the vessel.

Heavy Lift Derrick: Large cargo handling crane, usually attached to one of the main masts and originally operated by a steam winch.

Heel: The angle in a transverse arc from vertical.

Heel Block: The pulley block found at the lower end of a derrick boom.

Helm: The entire steering mechanism of the vessel.

Helmsman: The crewmember who operates the steering gear.

High Seas: Areas of water that are outside the jurisdiction of any country or state.

Hogging: A condition of the hull where the extremities are sat lower in the water than the center section. The opposite of sagging.

Hold: A volume within the hull section, which is arranged for the stowage of cargo. Separated from other compartments by bulkheads and possibly including “Tween Decks”.

Homogenous Cargo: Entire cargo of the same type such as found in oil tankers, bulk carriers, gas tankers etc.

Horn: The part of the stern frame casting from which a spade rudder is hung.

Housing: The portion of a mast found below the line of the main deck.

Hunting Gear: The system of rods and linkages that provides positional feedback to the steering gear variable delivery pump of the position of the rudder.

Hydraulic Winch: A cargo or mooring winch whose motive power is provided by a hydraulic system. A centrally located hydraulic system can be used to operate a number of winches around the vessel.

Hydrofoil: Is simply a wing that is designed to operate in water. These include the wings used to generate lift and elevate a hydrofoil craft above the water and stabilizer fins found mainly on passenger vessels.

 
 
I
Ice Breaker: A vessel specifically strengthened to enable ice to be broken with the bow. Generally vessels will not have sufficient power to enable this to be done continuously in thick ice so the ship is designed to go ahead and astern quickly. The ship will ride up onto the ice and the weight of the vessel will break the ice. The vessel will then go astern to give sufficient room to gain enough speed to ride up on the ice again. Ice breakers usually have very substantial bows, sometimes actually filled with concrete and a large skeg behind the rudder to protect it when the vessel is going astern into the broken ice.

Immersion: This is the weight required by a vessel to either increase or decrease the mean draught by 1 cm. Quoted in Tonnes per cm or TPC.

Inboard: In the direction of the vessel towards the center line.

Inclination Test: Also known as the Inclining Experiment this determines the position of the vessels center of gravity. It will always be done when a ship has been completed in the yard and is usually repeated after significant work has been done such as in dry docks. It basically consists of moving large masses in a transverse manner on the ship and measuring the respective angles of heel. This information is then used to calculate the position of the center of gravity.

Intercostal: Is a longitudinal girder fitted between the floors and the frames of a ships structure but are not necessarily continuous.

Isherwood System: A method of ship construction that utilizes mainly longitudinal frames and stiffeners.

 
 
J
Jack Staff: The flag staff fitted at the bow.

Jack Stay: Tensioned ropes or wires to support such items as davits or masts.

Jack: Lifting device with high mechanical advantage either from a screw lifting device or hydraulic piston.

Jacobs Ladder: Rope ladder hanging over a vessels side. Used for embarking or disembarking while the vessel is at anchor or for use by pilots joining or leaving the ship.

Jetsam: Goods or items that have been discarded overboard whilst at sea. Although traditionally common this practice is now strictly controlled by internationally agreed legislation.

Jib: A projecting arm of either a crane or a derrick.

Joggle Plate: A hull plate that is shaped to enable it’s longitudinal edge to overlap the adjacent plate.

Joggle Shackle: A cable shackle with a quick release pin used in anchoring to haul on one cable when mooring with two anchors.

Jumper Stay: A rope or wire fitted horizontally from one mast to another or any other fixed point.

 
 
K
Kedge Anchor: One or more anchors carried in addition to the main forward anchors, usually stowed aft. Can be carried by an anchor handling vessel and then used to winch a vessel off from aground or to hold a vessel against a tide.

Keel Blocks: Heavy blocks made of wood and concrete that a vessel sits on in dry dock.

Keel Plate: The center strake of bottom plating.

Keel: The main structural longitudinal member running the length of the vessels bottom.

Keelson: A longitudinal girder on each side of the centerline.

Kent Ledge: Permanent ballast usually of iron. Can be found in the flat bottom of vessels to improve stability.

King Post: A vertical post fitted to support a derrick. Also referred to as a Samson Post.

Kitchen Rudder: A means of directing flow over a propeller to give ahead or astern thrust. Two curved plates form a shroud around the rudder which can be rotated to be either parallel to the propeller, allowing forward thrust or closing around the back of the propeller to redirect the thrust into an astern direction. Works exactly the same as the devices fitted to some modern jets to redirect thrust forwards for braking after landing.

Knee: A structural component fashioned into a right angle to provide strength and support at a joint such as a deck beam to a side frame specifically known as a Beam Knee.

Knuckle: Is generally regarded as a sudden change in the direction of hull plating.

Kort Nozzle: A shroud surrounding a propeller, which has the effect of reducing slip in the water flow and greatly improves propeller efficiency. Found in such vessels as tugs where the slip is considerable when under tow.

 
 
L
Labouring: The action of a vessel slowly pitching and rolling in bad weather and making little headway on course.

Lashings: All wires, ropes and chains used to secure cargo’s. Nothing to do with gravy.

Leading Block: A type of rope block used to guide and change direction of a rope usually into a Capstan.

League: Nautical measure (As in 20,000 of them!), which equals 1/20th a degree of latitude or three miles.

Lee: The sheltered side of an object which can refer to either a vessel, building or a land mass.

Leeward: On the sheltered side of a vessel.

Length Between Perpendiculars, LBP: The distance along the Summer Load Line between the forward and aft perpendiculars. The forward one is at the point where the stem cuts the waterline and the aft one is where the aft side of the rudder post or rudder stock cuts the same. Often referred to as a ships length.

Length Overall, LOA: The total length of the vessel including any extremities. There can be a significant difference in LBP and LOA on sailing vessels.

Light Displacement: The weight of the unladen vessel, measured in tonnes. The difference between the Loaded Displacement and the Light Displacement is the Deadweight.

Lightening Hole: A hole cut into any form of plate that is designed to reduce weight without sacrificing strength.

Lighter: A flat bottomed, unpowered craft for the transport of goods and cargo to and from a vessel.

Lignum Vitae: One of the very few woods that is actually denser than water. This wood was traditionally used as a stern tube and stern frame bearing material in old water lubricated bearings. This was superseded by the advent of oil filled stern tubes with stern seals but, strangely enough, the circle has turned and vessels are now using a plastic bearing material and returning to water cooled and lubricated bearings.

Load Line: A number of lines painted on the side of the vessel at the midship section which indicate the minimum allowed freeboard in a number of conditions and world wide locations. Also known as the Plimsol line and incorporates lines for the following:
Summer Load Line
Winter Load Line
Winter North Atlantic Load Line
Fresh Water Load Line
Tropical Fresh Water Load Line

Loaded Displacement: The weight in Tonnes of a vessels hull, machinery , spares, cargo, fuel, water and crew when a ship is immersed to its Summer load line.

Locking Pintle: A Rudder pintle specifically designed with a restraining collar to prevent the rudder from displacement in, for instance, heavy seas.

Loll: Also known as the Angle of Loll occurs if the centre of gravity is allowed to become above the centre of buoyancy. The vessel will “Loll” over until the centre of gravity is in line with the centre of buoyancy. If, by design, or cargo loading this cannot happen the vessel will simply capsize. Particularly significant with such things as a ships crane when the centre of gravity will instantly move upwards when a weight is lifted from a hold. The centre of gravity of the mass will shift from the bottom of the hold to the tip of the jib in the time it takes the crane to take the weight of the load.

Longitudinal Bulkhead: A bulkhead that runs from forward to aft as opposed to transversely which is across the vessel.

Luff: Opposite to Lee so it is the windward side of a vessel, building or land mass.

Luffing: Is the vertical movement of the jib of a crane, hence a “Luffing” crane is one whose jib can be moved vertically, as opposed to a “Chuffing” crane which is one that won’t move at all.

gravosa:
M
Maierform: A very distinctive bow shape with a pronounced rake.

Main Deck: The uppermost continuous deck from which all Freeboard calculations are determined.

Main Hatch: The largest and, usually, most centrally positioned hatch reserved for heaviest cargoes.

Margin Line: This is a line drawn 76mm below the upper surface of the bulkhead deck at the ships side. A passenger ship is sub divided into watertight compartments, which are designed in such a way as to not allow this line to become submerged should any two compartments become flooded.

Margin Plate: Is any plating that constitutes the outer boundaries of the double bottom spaces.

Marlin Spike: Not a ship construction term but simply a point of interest. A marlin spike is a pointed piece of metal with a screwdriver like head used for splicing steel wires. A common way of making them would be to turn down a large diameter stud bar and wrap copper wire into the thread to form a handle. If you made one of these for an AB you might get a nice carving or a decorative knot in return.

Mast: Traditionally used for attaching derricks for cargo operations or carrying a sail. Nowadays used simply to attach navigation lights and radar scanners.

Mast Step: The strengthened part of a vessels structure, possibly even in the keel where a mast would be secured.

Mast Table: A small platform attached to the mast used to support the end of the derrick.

Messenger: 1) Is a continuous rope passing from a capstan to a cable and is used to haul it on board. 2) Any form of small wire or rope attached to a much larger wire or rope to enable the larger to be hauled between the vessel and ashore for purposes of mooring the vessel.

Metacentre: The metacentre is a measurement of the vessels stability at small angles of heel. It is taken as an indication of the vessels behavior when underway such that a high metacentre would indicate the vessel would return to upright quickly and the vessel is considered as sensitive or tender.

Metacentric Height: Refer to the GM entry and the above.

Midship Area: Is the immersed area of the midship section.

Midship Section: A transverse section of the vessel taken at the midships point in the hull. It is usually the largest area of section.

Monkey Island: Is the area above the bridge where, traditionally, the vessel could be conned from if visibility was poor. All bridge equipment was usually repeated here. The name has stuck however and now refers to any deck on top of the bridge. A favourite sunbathing area on cargo ships, sometimes reserved for the Captains wife, who would usually not realize that she could be overlooked from the top of the funnel.

Moor: To tie up and secure a vessel by rope to either a quayside or a buoy.

Mooring Ring: A cast and usually oval ring set along a bulwark through which mooring lines could be led to keep them out of the way.

Mooring Winch: A winch gear driven by steam or electrically with a warping end on one of the horizontal shafts for the handling or mooring ropes.

Moulded Breadth: The largest possible breadth of the vessel taken at the midships section taken internally.

Moulded Depth: The vertical distance once again, at the midship section, from the top of the keep to the inside of the upper deck plating.

Mousing: A few additional turns taken around a cargo hook to prevent the rope eye jumping out of the hook.

Muff Coupling: Is a form of coupling between two ends of a shaft. It does not use flanges or bolts but is simply two tapered sleeves forced together hydraulically. This force causes the internal diameter to reduce and thus grips the two ends of the shafts. Used regularly in prop shafts the entire propeller load is transmitted through nothing more than frictional force between two metallic surfaces.

 
 
N
Net Registered Tonnage: Is a derivative of the gross tonnage arrived at by deducting spaces used for the accommodation of crew, navigation and propulsion machinery.

Norman Pins: Rollers that can be erected at a tugs aft bulwarks to guide the tow hawser over the aft of the vessel and prevent the tow passing over the vessels beam.

 
 
O
Oakum: A joint material made from tarred rope fibres used for caulking decks and sealing structures.

Observation Tank: A tank that collects condensate returns from a steam system and incorporates a weir that allows the collection of any oil contamination that may be returned from fuel tanks.

Oertz Rudder: Is a specific type of high lift or flap rudder.

Open Shelter Decker: A shelter deck vessel whereby the tonnage opening is maintained permanently open. It is specifically designed so that the registered tonnage does not include the shelter deck space even though this space could be used for the carriage of cargo.

Orlop: Not commonly used nowadays but was traditionally the lowest deck in a vessel.

Outboard: Is in a direction away from the centerline of the vessel and opposite to Inboard.

Outreach: The maximum extent cargo handling equipment can reach.

Outrigger: Is a mast extension, which effectively increases the spread of the stays to the topmast.

Overage: Is a term used to express the amount of cargo discharged in excess of the quantity declared in the manifest.

Overall Length: Is the maximum length of the vessel including all protrusions.

Oxter Plate: Is a stiffening steel plate that fits around the upper part of the rudder post.

 
 
P
Panama Chocks: Are a type of casting with an oval opening fitted at either end of a vessel used for passing the mooring lines to the Mules when going through the Panama Canal.

Panamax: A classification of vessel of any type that is the maximum size due to its breadth that can transit the Panama Canal.

Panting: is the inwards and outwards movement of hull plating. Experienced more at the bow area as a result of wave action.

Panting Beams: Additional stiffening beams in the forward and aft sections of the hull designed to resist panting.

Paravane: Is a device incorporating a steel cable used to sever floating magnetic mine wires, allowing them to float to the surface where they could be disposed of.

Parbuckle: Is the action of rolling a round object up a ramp using a rope passed around it. The rope is looped around and the free ends are hauled on causing the object to roll upwards. The term is also used when righting a vessel or boat that may be aground. When bringing it upright.

Parbuckling: Is used mainly as a term when righting a vessel, which may be aground, and needs to be upright when a tide returns. Either external forces can be used such as the ropes described above, or internal such as movement or cargo or ballast.

Pendant: Is a short length of steel wire attached to the end of a towrope to prevent chaffing of the heavily used part of the rope.

Period of Roll: The time taken for one complete rolling cycle of the vessel measured from usually full over to port or starboard.

Permissible Length: The length between bulkheads in a vessel calculated to ensure that the vessel will remain afloat if one or more compartments should become flooded. Permissible length is a quoted fraction of the floodable length and often referred to as a factor of subdivision.

Perpendiculars: The forward perpendicular is a vertical line through the intersection of the loaded waterline and the stem frame and the aft perpendicular is a vertical line through where the aft side of the sternpost meets the loaded waterline or, if there is no post, through the center of the rudderstock.

Pig’s Ear: Is basically a funnel or tundish, which usually has an open-ended pipe running into it so that the quality of the fluid flowing can be monitored.

Pilgrim Nut: Is a patented design of a propeller securing nut. It incorporates an internal annular ring that is hydraulically operated to force the propeller up the tapered end of the shaft and therefore does away with the need of a stress inducing keyway.

Pilgrim Wire: A wire fixed at one end and passing over a pulley at the other with a weight on it. The tensioned wire is then used as a reference point for checking the alignment of such things as propeller shafts. The catenary or sag of the wire can be calculated using the modulous of elasticity and the weight and this can be incorporated into the calculations.

Pillars: Vertical internal structural supports between decks and the lower hull.

Pintles: Are the bearing hinges on which a rudder hangs.

Pitching: A rotational movement about a transverse axis of the ship as it progresses through a seaway.

Plane Sailing: An expression derived from the simplification of a navigational exercise by considering the surface to be flat rather than flowing the earth’s curvature.

Plimsol Line: See Load Line. The expression came from the name Samual Plimsol who devised the system of limiting loads after large numbers of vessels were lost at sea due to overloading.

Plummer Block: A bearing support block used mainly in propulsion shafting.

Pontoon Hatch Cover: Is a hatch cover consisting of a single removable solid piece. This type of hatch cover is found on container ships where the hatch is removed with the container crane locating in dogs set into the cover.

Poop: Is the area of superstructure on the aft upper deck.

Port: Is the left hand side of the vessel looking forward designated by a red navigation light. It could also refer to an opening in the ships side for the passage of goods or personnel.

Porthole: Circular ships window which, if fitted below the uppermost continuous deck, will incorporate a deadlight to close over it in the event of heavy weather.

Pounding: the action of the vessel when it falls onto a wave after being lifted by a previous one. This action leads to panting and can also be referred to as slamming.

Prismatic Coefficient: Is a ratio of the volume of water displaced by a ship to the volume as represented by the length of the vessel multiplied by the area of the submerged midship section.

Projected Area: The area of the blades of a propeller as projected onto a flat surface.

 
 
Q
Quarter Deck: Traditionally Is the part of the upper deck that is aft of the main mast.

Quarters: The living accommodation part of the vessel.

Quoin: A wooden wedge put under barrels or logs to prevent them from rolling when under way.

Quoit: A disc made from wood used in the game of Deck Quoits. The disc is slid at a target with a pusher in a similar manner to bowls but of course the quoit will not roll away.

 
 
R
Racking: A distortion of the hull caused by collision or grounding.

Rail: Is the wooden or metal capping of the bulwarks or handrails.

Raised Foc’s’le: A superstructure at the bow built up above the normal Foc’s’le deck level.

Rake: Is a line inclined from the vertical or horizontal and is used to describe the degree of deviation. i.e. a heavily raked bow.

Rapsons Slide: A mechanism used in ships steering gear that gives the feedback of a prime mover position to the control input linkage.

Reefer Ship: Slang for a refrigerated cargo vessel.

Reeve: Is a rope passing through a wooden or metal block.

Registered Length: Is the length measured from the foreside of the stem post to the aft side of the stern post.

Reserve Buoyancy: Compartments designed within the vessels hull structure, sealed and unused, that add to the buoyancy of the vessel.

Rider: A turn of rope on the capstan or warping end, which has jumped across another turn causing the rope to lock up or jam.

Riding Lights: Another term for the Anchor Lights that must be illuminated when at anchor.

Rig: General term for a derrick or lifting gear.

Rigger: A rank referring to someone who tends to the vessels wires and ropes. Little used nowadays but common on sailing vessels.

Rise of Floor: Is the height of the bottom shell plating above the base line. The rise of the floor is measured at the moulded beam and indicates a sloping of the hull used to ensure drainage.

Rolling: Is rotational motion about a longitudinal axis.

Rolling Hatch Cover: A type of hatch cover mounted on wheels that operate on runners allowing the hatch cover to be rolled away from the hatch. Used a lot on Bulk Carriers that have an abundance of deck space.

Rope Guard: A fairing piece that covers up the joint between the propeller boss and the hull and is designed to prevent ropes from fouling the shaft. Often fitted with cutters to cut any rope that may be pulled onto it.

Rubbing Strake: A strake fitted externally to the line of the hull designed to make contact first with any other object such as a harbour wall or any other vessel and therefore allow easy repairs without having to affect the main hull plating.

Rudder: A means of steering the vessel. The three main categories are Balanced, Semi Balanced or Unbalanced and refer to the proportion of the blade forward and aft of the stock.

Rudder Bearing: The bearing within the ship that supports the weight of the rudder sometimes in conjunction with pintle bearings or sometimes it may be the only means of support.

Rudder Post: The after part of the stern frame which contains the pintle bearings for the support of the rudder. In a balanced rudder where a high percentage of the rudder is forward of the Rudder Stock the Sole Plate will be considerably more substantial.

Rudder Stock: The shaft about which the rudder is rotated by connection to the steering gear.

Rudder Stops: Physical pieces of metal that prevent the rudder being turned beyond, usually, about 38-40 degrees.

Rudder Trunk: Is a tubular structure through which the rudder stock passes into the hull and which usually houses the rudder gland.

Runner: A single rope block with a tackle on one end and a hook on the other.

 

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